Author: Dr. Harish Kumar Tiwari
Asst. prof. in Department of Physical Education, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, M.P., India
The intent of the study used to be to analyse and compare the favored leadership behavior of feminine volley ball players from their coaches. One hundred (Inter-college level =64, All India level=36)) feminine volleyball avid players had been selected to serve as topics for this learn. The themes have been in age ranged from 19 to 24 years. Management Scale for sporting events developed with the aid of P. Chelladurai (1994) used to be utilized to measure preferred behavior preferences of feminine volleyball games. To assess the preferred leadership behavior of those female volleyball games, approach, usual deviations, t- ratio and F-ratio have been calculated. The effects of the survey showed that Inter-tuition and All India stage female volleyball players exhibited specific preferences on special dimensions of chief behavior except training and guideline and autocratic behavior dimensions of preferred management. Inter-school level and All India level feminine volleyball players additionally desired their coaches more on training and guideline in assessment of the residue of the scale preferred leadership behavior.
Study in game psychology with a view to beef up athletic performance has been used for decades in other countries. In the us, we are basically simply opening out to help the coach in making legitimate and trustworthy selections related to athletic performance, yet a lot of the inquiry could also be labeled theoretical or without problems a be trained for its possess sake, as in comparison with useful air. Utilized research relevant – or utilization by way of coaches. Without doubt a quantity of folks, together with many coaches, appear, at much theoretical study as just about vain and now not directly relevant to their purposes (Fuoss and Tropmann., 1985).
The participation in physical games results in building up self-worth, enhance intellectual degree. Persona progress a no. Outgoing tendency or extraversion as such proficiency results in more advantageous success in sports activities is highly valued in one’s workforce (Simon, 1964).
Success in athletics appears to be dependent partially on psychological popularity and features. The motive of an athlete’s persona profile, in drawback with abilities of their past experience, train’s score, anatomic and physiological characteristics and therefore you can heighten the accuracy of prediction in a quantity of physical activities (Morgan, 1986).
Protective players preferred and perceived greater quantities of democratic, autocratic behavior, and societal help, players who opt for more of a certain dimension may additionally in flip understand bigger quantities of that behavior (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1980).
Leadership in hockey occasions seems to be extra effective when the chief is oriented towards personal relations between himself and his group than when he’s oriented especially toward completion of the crew undertaking i.E. Successful (Carron, 1980).
Leadership in basketball atmosphere comes from a member of a workforce’s beginning 5 players who is stored again in rather excessive regard through his teammates an is among the first-class basketball avid players on the squad. Management in the basketball situation are challenge oriented and are more sensible, more daring, more conscientious and self -opinionated than nonreaders (Anpaugh, 1972).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Lee and Lee (1993) discovered that crew physical activities athletes preferred and perceived extra democratic behavior from their coaches than did the opposite two companies. Riemer and Chelladurai (1995) indicated that protecting avid players preferred and perceived larger quantities of democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support than did offensive players. Sherman and Fuller (2000) outcome revealed an overwhelmingly excessive degree of similarity within the teaching preferences between all athletes regardless of gender. Lindauer(2000) observed value of differences between man or woman and workforce recreation athletes and between male and female athletes’ preferences for designated teaching conduct dimensions i.e. Democratic behavior, Autocratic conduct, constructive feedback , and Social aid. Getaway (2007) instructed that feminine basketball avid players preferred a better stage of democratic behavior, social reinforcement, optimistic suggestions, however a slash degree of authoritarian behavior. Male basketball players favored a better stage of social reinforcement from their tutors.
The purpose of the survey was once to analyze and examine the favored leadership behavior of feminine volleyball players from their tutors. It used to be speculated that there would no importance of clash in their management preferences among female volleyball players of Inter-tuition degree and All India level.
Selection of Subjects
One hundred (Inter-school stage =sixty four, All India stage=36)) female volleyball players Standing for their respective school in West Zone CENTRAL UNIVERSITY and All India Inter-institution Volleyball competitions held in PT. Ravi Shankar, tuition, Raipur 2009-2010 were chosen to serve as topics for this work. The fields have been in age ranged from 19 to 24 ages.
Description of Questionnaire
Management Scale for sporting events developed through P. Chelladurai (1994) was used to measure favored behavior preferences of feminine volleyball avid players. The size consisted of forty objects for athlete’s belief of coach’s behavior and forty items for the preferred version representing five dimensions of management behavior, i.e. Training and guide, democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, social helps and constructive feedback (profitable behavior). The dimensions had scan-retest reliability zero. Seventy two for training, behavior, 0.82 for democratic behavior, zero. Seventy six for autocratic behavior, 0.71 for social helps, and nil.79 for the positive suggestions. The acquired rankings tabulated for all of the objects under dimensions of management behavior had been averaged out to produce the scotch for each and every dimension.
Administration of Questionnaire and Collection of Data
The imperative allow from the organizing secretary of. All India and West Zone CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ladies volleyball Competitions had been received by way of the research student to steer this survey on feminine volleyball players in the course of competitions. The tutors and topics had been contacted at the website online competition in my view and their sincere cooperation was once solicited. Necessary instructions had been broken to the issues earlier than the disposal of every examination. Confidentiality of responses used to be undertaken. No point in time for filling the questionnaire was set, however subjects have been ready to reply as promptly as possible. As quickly as a bunch of players accomplished the questionnaire, it used to be compiled from the athletes and verified that no questionnaire was once given without being served.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To evaluate the preferred leadership behavior of West Zone and All India CENTRAL UNIVERSITY female volleyball players, means and standard deviations, t- ratio and F-ratio were calculated. Wherever, the F-ratio was found significant, Scheffe’s Test of post-hoc analysis (Sheehan, 1971) was used to detect out the significance of difference between ordered pairs means. The stage of significance was set at.05 degrees. The SPSS version 16.0 for windows was employed for data management and statistical analysis, and results pertaining to this have been presented in Table 1 for 6.
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF PREFERENCES ON FIVE DIMENSIONS OF LEADER BEHAVIOR OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY AND ALL INDIA LEVEL FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS
|Leader Behavior Dimensions||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level (N=64)||All India level||(N=36)|
|Training & Instruction||4.287||399||4.476||.455|
|Democratic Behavior||3.971||. 544||3.678||.523|
|Autocratic Behavior||3.238||. 893||2.950||.816|
|Social Support||3.985||. 525||3.495||.594|
The mean scores of five dimensions of leader behavior as preferred by West Zone CENTRAL UNIVERSITY and All India level female volleyball players have been depicted in figures 1 to 5.
(Fig. In PDF, )
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PREFERRED LEADERSHIP OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LEVEL FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYRS
|Sources of Variance||df||Sum of Squares||Mean Square||F- ratio|
*Significant at .05 level., F.05 ( 4, 425) =2.40.
From Table 2, It is evident that the statistically significant difference existed among CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level female volleyball players on preferred leadership, as the obtained F-value of 23.61 was much higher than the required F.05 (4, 315) = 2.40.
As the F-ratio was found to be significant, Scheffe’s Test of Post-hoc comparison was
|applied to study||the significance of differences among CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level female|
|volleyball players||on five dimensions of leader behavior of preferred leadership and the data|
pertaining to this have been presented in Table 3.
SINGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES AMONG CENTRAL UNIVERSITY LEVEL FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS BETWEEN ORDERED PAIRED MEANS ON FIVE DIMENSIONS OF PREFERRED LEADERSHIP
*Significant at .05 level
It is quite obvious from the table 3, that there were significant differences on preferred leadership among CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level female volleyball players between training and instruction -democratic behavior followed by autocratic behavior, and social supports; democratic behavior – autocratic behavior; autocratic behavior- social support followed by positive feedback, as the paired mean differences of 0.457, 1.19, 0.444, 0.733, 0.746 and 0.768 respectively were higher than the confidence interval (C.l.) of 0.443. But the mean differences between training and instruction- positive feedback; democratic behavior – social support followed by positive feedback and social support – positive feedback respectively were not significant at 0.05 level, as the confidence interval of 0.443 was higher than the mean differences.
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PREFERRED LEADERSHIP OF ALL INDIA LEVEL FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS
|Sources of Variance||df||Sum of Squares||Mean Square||F- ratio|
*Significant at .05 level., F.05 ( 4, 175) = 3.04.
From Table 4, It is evident that the statistically significant difference existed among All India level female volleyball players on preferred leadership was very high as the obtained F-value of 40.18 was much higher than the required F.05 ( 4, 175) = 3.04.
As the F-ratio was found to be significant, Scheffe’s Test of Post-hoc comparison was applied to study the significance of differences among All India level female volleyball players on five dimensions of leader behavior of preferred leadership and the data pertaining to this have been presented in Table 5.
SINGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES AMONG ALL INDIA LEVEL FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS BETWEEN ORDERED PAIRED MEANS
ON FIVE DIMENSIONS OF PREFERRED LEADERSHIP.
*Significant at .05 level.
It is quite obvious from the table 5, that there were significant differences on preferred leadership among All India level female volleyball players between training and instruction -democratic behavior followed by autocratic behavior, and social supports; democratic behavior – autocratic behavior followed by positive feedback; autocratic behavior- social support followed by positive feedback, and social supports- positive feedback, as the paired mean differences of 0.797, 1.526, 0.981, 0.728, 0.725, .544, 1.453 and 0.909 respectively were higher than the confidence interval (C.l.) of 0.436. But the mean differences between training and instruction- positive feedback and social support – positive feedback respectively were not significant at 0.05 level, as the confidence interval of 0.436 was higher than the mean differences.
SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEAN SCORES OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY AND ALL INDIA LEVEL FEMALE VOLLYBALL PLAYERS ON FIVE DIMENSIONS OF
|Training & Instruction (TI)||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY||4.287||.047||.087||0.542|
|Democratic Behavior (DB)||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY||3.971||.293||.111||2.622*|
|Autocratic Behavior (AB)||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY||3.238||.288||.181||1.598|
|Social Support ( SS)||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY||3.985||.490||.115||4.271*|
|Positive Feedback (PF)||CENTRAL UNIVERSITY||4.006||.398||.180||2.205*|
*Significant at .05 level, t.05 (98) = 1.98
It is evident from table 14, that there were statistically significant differences between the preferences of CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level and All India level female volleyball players in training and instruction, plus feedback and social support dimensions of leader behavior, as the obtained t-value of 2.622, 4.271, and 2.205 respectively were higher than the required t-value of t. 05 (98) = 1.98. Only the significant disputes were not found in training and instruction and autocratic behavior dimensions of leader behavior, as the obtained t-value of 0.542, and 1.598 respectively, were lesser than the required t-value of t. 05 (98) = 1.98.
Findings of descriptive expertise on the Inter – institution degree feminine volleyball avid players on five dimensions of desired leadership behavior indicated that ladies volleyball players preferred extra democratic behavior, autocratic behavior and social livelihood of their coaches than did All India stage feminine volleyball respondents. In the case of All India stage ladies volleyball avid players, they favored extra coaching and academic exercise and optimistic feedback from their passenger cars than their reverse numbers.
The outcome of a method analysis of variance (ANOVA) for CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level feminine volleyball players on five dimensions of desired leadership behavior expressed significant variations amongst CENTRAL UNIVERSITY level female volley ball players in their preferences for desired management which may be due to variation in practice procedure, training style, Interpersonal relationship and aid. The Scheffe’s experiment of post-hoc comparisons showed that the Inter – institution stage feminine volleyball avid players favored more training and instruction followed via constructive suggestions, democratic habits, social aid and autocratic behavior from their tutors.
Within the case of All India degree feminine volleyball players on 5 dimensions of favored leadership behavior, they also expressed big variations among female volleyball players in their preferences for favored management. The Scheffe’s test of post-hoc comparisons indicated that female volleyball players also preferred extra training and instruction adopted by way of confident suggestions, democratic behavior, social support and autocratic behavior from their tutors.
When the CENTRAL UNIVERSITY and All India degree female volleyball players have been when put next together on 5 dimensions of chief behavior, they demonstrated huge deviations in their preferences for democratic behavior, social support and optimistic suggestions dimensions of chief behavior. However they had no huge conflicts of their preferences for training and instruction and autocratic behavior dimensions of leader behavior, which proved that the Inter-institution and All India level female volleyball
avid players desired their coaches equally in theses dimensions of leader behavior and in a different way in one other dimension of chief behavior. The findings are partly supported by means of Chefladurai and Saleh (1978).
It used to be hypothesized that there would no significance of difference in their management preferences amongst female volleyball players of Inter-school level and All India degree, this speculation has been in part permitted, as the Inter-institution degree female volleyball avid players had big difference in their preferences between training and instruction -democratic behavior followed with the aid of autocratic behavior, and social helps; democratic behavior – autocratic behavior; autocratic behavior- social support adopted by constructive suggestions
in the case of All India stage feminine volleyball avid players, they skilled tremendous conflicts in their preferences between coaching and guide -democratic behavior adopted by way of autocratic behavior, and social supports; democratic behavior – autocratic behavior adopted by constructive feedback; autocratic behavior- social help adopted by means of constructive suggestions, and social helps- confident suggestions.
Within the dilemma of gift be trained, the following conclusions are enumerated:
- Female volleyball avid players of the Inter – tuition and All India level had exhibited distinct preferences on 5 dimensions of chief behavior.
- Inter-institution degree feminine volleyball players favored their coaches more on coaching and teaching followed through constructive suggestions, democratic behavior social aid, and autocratic behavior dimensions.
- All India degree feminine volleyball players favored their coaches more on training and guide adopted by way of positive suggestions, democratic behavior, social support and autocratic behavior) dimensions.
- Inter-tuition and All India stage feminine volleyball avid players expressed differently preferences in democratic behavior, social support and autocratic behavior) dimensions of chief behavior. That they had similarity in training and instruction and autocratic behavior.
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Carron, A.V. Social Psychology of Sport. New York : Mouvement Publication, 1980. Chelladuari, P. and Saleh, S.D. “Preferred Leadership in Sports” Canadian Journal of Applied
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