Inherent Engineering and Science of Humans: What is it Capable of ?

  • Chao Guiren

Abstract

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's
genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells,
including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel
organisms. New DNA may be inserted in the host genome by first isolating and copying the genetic
material of interest using molecular cloning methods to generate a DNA sequence, or by synthesizing
the DNA, and then inserting this construct into the host organism. Genes may be removed, or "knocked
out", using a nuclease. Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to
change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, removeexons, add a gene, or introduce
point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a
genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in
1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 andgenetically modified food has been
sold since 1994. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States in December
2003.[1] Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research,
agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. Enzymes used in laundry detergent and medicines
such as insulin and human growth hormone are now manufactured in GM cells, experimental GM cell
lines and GM animals such as mice or zebrafish are being used for research purposes, andgenetically
modified crops have been commercialized.

Published
2018-02-12
How to Cite
Guiren, C. (2018). Inherent Engineering and Science of Humans: What is it Capable of ?. IJOSTHE, 3(3), 10. Retrieved from http://ijosthe.com/index.php/ojssports/article/view/55